VIDEO ARCHIVES

ANDEAN VIDEOS

NOTE:

The purpose of making roughly edited versions my videos available online is provide an idea of some of the expeditions and topics that I have filmed since 1965. These began with 16 mm footage taken during underwater archaeology expeditions in southern and northern Italy. Of course, the length of a film depends on the footage that was taken at the time, which was limited primarily due to a lack of funds.

The videos are mainly for people and organizations who might be interested in seeing what I have on film, but who would prefer not to view all of the raw footage. The idea is to have these relatively lengthy films be later edited down to short ones for public use on a platform such as YouTube. In short, these videos are not intended for a popular audience. Among other things, I realize that many videos need narration, subtitles, illustrations, and music. They will also be modified in the future to include additional footage & graphics, etc. If music has already been added, it is from “open sources” and better music may be used in the future. Any comments can be sent to me at

johanreinhard@hotmail.com.

Ampato Expedition 1997

This video is a preliminary edit of footage taken during our fourth expedition to Mount Ampato (6,312 m/20,708 ft) in 1997.

Ampato 1997 T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Selected Related Publications

1. "Inca Rituals & Sacred Mountains: A Study of the World's Highest Archaeological Sites" (2010)**

2. "Ampato (Ice Maiden) Expeditions - Chapters 1-3 of “The Ice Maiden”

3. "Peru’s Ice Maidens" (1996)

4. "Science and the Mummies of Peru" (1997)

5. "Sacred Mountains, Ceremonial Sites, and Human Sacrifice among the Incas" (2005)

**Our academic book Inca Rituals and Sacred Mountains brings together information and analysis based on the research undertaken on several Andean mountains, including Ampato, Misti, Pichu Pichu, Sara Sara, Llullaillaco, and Quehuar.

Background

In Inca times Ampato was one of the most sacred mountains in the region of Arequipa, Peru. However, it was permanently snow covered and thus seemed to be a peak with little likelihood of finding anything on its summit. On Sept. 6, 1995, I chose an unclimbed route up the NW side of Ampato to take photos of the nearby volcano of Sabancaya while it was erupting. To our surprise, my companion Miguel Zarate & I found an Inca site at ca. 6,200 m that had become uncovered due to the effect of the eruptions. For the first time, the summit was also snow free, but it was too late for us to reach it that day. We descended and made an ascent via the W ridge where we camped the night on a plateau at 5,800 m. The next morning (Sept. 8) we reached the summit and found that part of it had collapsed, taking most of an Inca burial site with it into a crater about 70 m below. We discovered Inca artifacts and the Inca "Ice Maiden” (later nicknamed "Juanita") laying on the ice inside the crater.

In October 1995 José Antonio Chávez and I returned with an expedition (filmed by National Geographic) and found 2 more mummies buried at 5,800 m. I led an expedition in August 1996 and, among a few other finds, a perfectly preserved blue Inca tunic containing a unique red and white corded item was recovered at 5,800 m. José Antonio Chávez and I undertook a 4th expedition in November-December 1997, and excavations in areas without surface material led to the discovery of another female mummy and associated offerings at 5,800 m.

Related Photo Albums

Llullaillaco Expedition 1999

The video is a preliminary edit of footage taken during our expedition to Mount Llullaillaco in 1999.

LLULLAILLACO 1999 T-M-WM 7-6-20.mp4

Selected Related Publications

1. "Inca Rituals & Sacred Mountains: A Study of the World's Highest Archaeological Sites" (2010)**

2. "Llullaillaco & Quehuar Mummies" - Chapters 10-12 of “The Ice Maiden”

3. "Inca Sacrifice Frozen in Time" (1999)

4." Inca Featherwork" (2012)

5. "Llullaillaco: An Investigation of the World’s Highest Archaeological Site" (1993)

6. Llullaillaco - Investigación Arqueológico 1997

**Our academic book Inca Rituals and Sacred Mountains brings together information and analysis based on the research undertaken on several Andean mountains, including Ampato, Misti, Pichu Pichu, Sara Sara, Llullaillaco, and Quehuar.

Background

Llullaillaco (6,739 m/22,109 ft) is located on the border of Argentina and Chile. The world's highest archaeological site is located on its summit. While camped two weeks just below the summit, we found three frozen Inca mummies and accompanying artifacts, all of which were recovered in context and exceptionally well-preserved. (In April 1999 we returned to Llullaillaco in order to film scenes for National Geographic TV.) The urgency of the research was obvious, as looters had destroyed over a dozen prehispanic burials at the base of the mountain, and, only a couple of weeks before, we had recovered part of an Inca mummy that looters had dynamited on Quehuar (6,150 m).

Related Photo Albums

Quehuar Expedition 1999

This video is a preliminary edit of footage taken during our expedition to Mount Quehuar (Quewar) in 1999.

QUEHUAR 1999 T-M-WM 7-9-20.mp4

background

Quehuar (6,130 m / 20,111 ft) is an isolated peak in NW Argentina. I had first climbed Quehuar in 1981, and in 1999 I co-directed an expedition to excavate the summit ruins with Jose Antonio Chavez and Constanza Ceruti. We remained camped 10 days just below the summit and recovered an Inca statue and a portion of a frozen Inca mummy that had part of its cranium destroyed when it had been dynamited by looters some years earlier.

Selected Related Publications

1. "Inca Rituals & Sacred Mountains: A Study of the World's Highest Archaeological Sites" (2010)**

2. "Llullaillaco & Quehuar Mummies" - Chapters 10-12 of “The Ice Maiden”

3. "Rescue Archaeology of the Inca Mummy on Mount Quehuar"

**Our academic book Inca Rituals and Sacred Mountains brings together information and analysis based on the research undertaken on several Andean mountains, including Quehuar, Llullaillaco, Ampato, Misti, Pichu Pichu, and Sara Sara.

Chani Expedition 2000

This 25-minute video is a preliminary edit of footage taken during our expedition to the mountain of Chañi in 2000

Chani 2000 T-M-WM 7-6-20.mp4

Selected Related Publications

1. “Chañi y Acay - Excavaciones arqueológicos”

2. Inca Rituals & Sacred Mountains: A Study of the World's Highest Archaeological Sites This is an academic book that brings together information and analysis based on the research undertaken on several Andean mountains, including excavations carried out on Llullaillaco, Quehuar, Ampato, Misti, Pichu Pichu, and Sara Sara.

Related Photo Album

Background

Chañi (5,896 m/19,344 ft) lies in NW Argentina and was the first mountain on which an Inca human sacrifice had been recovered and kept (relatively) preserved. Unfortunately, this was in 1905 and the climbers kept no record of its context. The mummy was later determined to have been that of a 5-6-year-old individual. Its long-time exposure to the elements and poor storage conditions after its discovery, led to the decomposition of the soft tissue. At some time in the past, looters had also used dynamite to break open the frozen ground and largely destroyed an artificial platform that had been built by the Incas and was the probable location of the burial.

In 2000 we organized an expedition to investigate the summit area to see if enough remained of structures to help reconstruct a plan of the site (see below). We were only able to recover a few ceramic and textile fragments during our investigation. If these had been part of the mummy’s burial—and not that of another possible offering—they suggest that the body was that of a female. The remains of the mummy are reportedly being kept in the Museo Etnográfico de Buenos Aires.

Pachatusan Expedition 2002

PACHATUSAN 2002 T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Lake Titicaca Expeditions 1991 & 2000

The second video includes a brief discussion about the Incas on the Island of the Sun (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia) and an underwater archaeological project that Johan Reinhard directed there during 1988-92 (first video). He is shown in the second video here with an American team led by Roger Brown that was sailing kayaks on the lake in 2000. kayaks (The kayaks were called katayaks, since they could also be used on land with attached wheels.)

Underwater Archaeology 1991 Footage

Lake Titicaca Underwater Archaeology (1991) T-M-WM 7-6-20.mp4

Island of the Sun 2000 Footage

Lake Titicaca - Island of the Sun (2000) [Clip].mp4

Background

Lake Titicaca (12,506 ft. /3,812 m) is shared by Peru and Bolivia and is considered to be the world’s highest navigable lake. While living in Bolivia during 1987-92, Johan directed an underwater archaeology project, mainly focused on a site off the small island of Koa (near the Island of the Sun). The National Institute of Archaeology conservation specialist Eduardo Pareja and he made several trips, often with other divers assisting, using both tanks and a hookah system. While surveying the site, they found rare artifacts from both the Inca & Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) cultures, which demonstrated a continued pattern of worship there since the middle of the first millennium. A site museum to display and store the archaeological finds was built in the village of Challapampa on the Island of the Sun and was inaugurated in 1994.

In 2000 Johan returned with a film crew led by Roger Brown, who was making a film about their expedition to cross the Bolivian Altiplano over both land and water. The video shown here is a short clip of that film made available with the permission of Roger Brown

Selected Related Publications**

1. Underwater Archaeological Research in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia 1992

2. Lago Titicaca - Arqueología Subacuática 1992

3. Tiahuanaco: Sacred Center of the Andes 1990

4. Tiwanaku - Ensayo Sobre su Cosmovision 1991

5. Sacred Peaks of the Andes 1992

**Our academic book Exploraciones Arqueológicas Subacuáticas en el Lago Titikaka brings together the results of research relating to Lake Titicaca that was undertaken by five specialists.

Related Photo Albums

Urcos Lake Expedition 2002

URCOS LAKE 2002 M 3-23-20.mp4

NEPAL VIDEOS

NOTE:

The films listed below are documentaries that I made in Nepal beginning in 1968 using an old 16 mm film camera, which did not have sound recording. There was limited 16 mm footage available in Nepal, so scenes were often brief. I roughly edited the footage several years ago, and then simply made digital video copies of them off of a screen. In some cases I have added a link to an introductory text that explains more about a video’s contents. Although not professionally made, they may be of interest for educational purposes. However, they are not to be publicly shown without prior agreement. Any comments can be sent to me at johanreinhard@hotmail.com.

Dolpo Trek 1971

A trek from the West Nepal-Indian border through Dolpo & on to Pokhara

DOLPO TREK (1971) T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Kathmandu Valley 1971

Kathmandu Valley (1971) M 1-20.mp4

Raute - Nomadic Hunting Tribe 1969

This video is a preliminary edit of footage I took of the Raute in 1968-69. I used an old (1937) 16mm camera without sound.

Raute 1969 T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Selected Related Publications*

1. "The Raute: Notes on a Nomadic Hunting and Gathering Tribe of Nepal" (1974)

2. "Raute (Nepal) – Camp Scenes and Bartering" (1977) [Brochure for Film]

*PDFs of other publications relating to the Raute and Raji are available in the Publications section of this site

Background

While searching for the Kusunda tribe in central Nepal in 1968, I heard of the Raute, who were still nomadic hunters and gatherers in West Nepal, and thus one of the few such tribes remaining in the world. I began searching for them in late 1968, finally locating them in January 1969. They hunt monkeys and trading wood vessels with villagers for grain, but at the time were hostile to outsiders remaining with them. I was only able to do research on and off with them until April 1969, then again in 1975 and 1994, 2013, 2014, 2015 & 2018.

In 1971 located a related group, the Ban Raut (also Ban Raji or Rawat), roaming the hills of West Nepal (some are in India), but they were gradually taking up agriculture and working as part-time laborers for villagers. These groups are also related to the Raji of West Nepal, and my main research was with the Purbia Raji before they were moved out of what became the Bardia National Reserve.

*Separate films are in preparation about the Ban Raut (Rawat) and the different Raji groups: the Purbia, the Bandali, and the Naukule.

Related Photo Albums

Kusunda - Nomadic Hunting Tribe 1968-69

This video is a preliminary edit of 16 mm footage I took of the Kusunda in 1968-69. I used an old (1937) Bell & Howell 70-D camera without sound.

Kusunda 1968-69 T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Description of Footage

Part 1 (1968):

A general view of the village of Satobati (local pronunciation) near Gorkha in central Nepal is followed by scenes of Kusunda houses, the first of a more traditional family and the second of a more acculturated one. Two Kusunda walk through rice fields and sharpen arrowheads near a stream. They stalk through the forest, then one shoots an arrow and retrieves it. One man digs for tubers, then another is shown smoking a clay pipe. Branches are cut and the poles for a lean-to are set in the ground. After the lean-to is finished, the two Kusunda return to the village. (Filmed June 6, 1968)

Part 2 (1969):

Kusunda near the village of Dhanubas in Dang District, West Nepal carry equipment and ritual items to a place in a stream bed. The objects are placed, and strips of cloth are tied around the saplings and bows and arrows. Drawings are made on the stone, incense is offered, and bows and arrows are circled over the incense. Auspicious markings are exchanged between the worshiper and people present. The objects are gathered together and carried away. (Filmed February 8, 1969)

The PDFs #4 & #5 (see below) contain more information about the two videos that have been combined to make the one noted above.


Kusunda Language Tape Links

These digital recordings were originally made using a Uher reel-to-reel tape recorder.

Kusunda Language Tapes 1968-1969 Introduction V1

Kusunda Tape #1 1968: Kusunda language taped on May 30, 1968 in the village of Satobati (Gorkha District, Nepal). The tape begins with Johan Reinhard speaking a word in English, followed by Urkien Tshering Sherpa saying it in Nepali, and then Teg Bahadur Kusunda saying it in Kusunda. Later this includes complete sentences. The tape is sixty-five minutes long (149 MB in MP3).

Kusunda Tape #2 1968: Kusunda language taped on May 30, 1968 in the village of Satobati (Gorkha District, Nepal). The tape continues from Tape #1 with Teg Bahadur telling a story in Kusunda in separate sentences and then the entire story without stopping. The tape is about five minutes long (10 MB in MP3).

Kusunda Tape #3 1969: Kusunda language taped on February 8, 1969 near the village of Dhanubas on the border of Dang and Surkhet Districts, Nepal. A Kusunda shaman recites incantations and mantras (in Kusunda & Nepali) until 8 minutes have passed, and then is singing until 46 minutes when he tells mantra in Kusunda. 51 minutes & 20 seconds. This is followed by Kusunda words and phrases. The tape is about sixty-four minutes long (147 MB in MP3).

Kusunda Tape #4 1969: Kusunda language taped on February 9, 1969 near the village of Dhanubas on the border of Dang and Surkhet Districts, Nepal. A Kusunda shaman recites incantations and mantras (in Kusunda & Nepali), then Kusunda words and sentences until 14 minutes and 37 seconds have passed, when he begins to sing a song in Nepali (called Jamre) until 27 minutes and 5 seconds. The remainder of the tape has the shaman providing Kusunda sentences (first asked in English and then Nepali). It was recorded on February 14, 1969. The tape is about 50 minutes long (115 MB in MP3).

Background

The Kusunda live in Nepal and are remnants of one of the world's last hunting & gathering tribes. More importantly, they have one of the world's rarest languages, as it is unrelated to any known language family.* Long believed extinct, while at the University of Vienna I read a report that some were still roaming in the hills of central Nepal. In 1968 I went to Nepal and found some of the last surviving members of the tribe in the central hills near Gorkha.** In 1969 and 1969 & 1975 I located a few more in Dang & Surkhet Districts in western Nepal. In 2015 & 2018 I returned to Nepal and visited some of the last remaining Kusunda in Dang. Only two, Gyani Maiya and Kamala, had fluency in their mother tongue. Sadly, now (March 2020) Kamala is the sole surviving speaker of this unique language--one which is also the only known to have survived after Nepal was settled by Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman speakers.

*The original reel-to-reel tape recordings of the Kusunda language have been stored since 1973 in the Phonogram Archive of the University of Vienna.

**Kusunda artifacts were deposited at the Museum für Völkerkunde (Museum of Cultural Anthropology--now The World Museum) in Vienna. Kusunda hair samples and finger and palm prints were deposited with Vienna’s Anthropologische Gesellschaft (Anthropology Society).

Related Photo Album

Trisuli River Rafting 1975

This video is a preliminary edit of 16 mm footage taken during our descent of the Trisuli River in 1975. I used an old (1937) Bell & Howell 70-D camera without sound, and the footage was digitized by videoing it off a screen and editing it on my PC. In short, it is what it is.

Trisuli River Rafting (1975) T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

Description of the Footage

In November 1975, a group of us made the first descent of the Trisuli River from Trisuli Bazaar to the Indian border. The team included Al Read, Gabriel Campbell, Skip Horner, Bob Harwood, Ed McCarthy and myself. (We were joined a few days later by Jennifer Read and a friend when we reached where the river met the Kathmandu-Pokhara Road.)

Background

Rafting as a regular sport in Nepal only really began in the mid-1970s. Al Read made several exploratory river trips with his friends, and during 1975-78, I was fortunate enough to be among them. There were a couple of close calls in 1975, including flipping on the Trisuli and after going over a waterfall on the Sun Kosi. Al realized that someone with a professional training was needed, if he was to undertake descents of Nepal's unexplored rivers. Mike Yager, an experienced rafting guide from the USA, took on the challenge, and over the next few years built up Nepal's first rafting company. Today dozens of rafting companies exist in Nepal, but few people are aware that Al Read & Mike Yager are the fathers of commercial rafting in the country.

Related Photo Album

Raji Shaman Initiation 1970

This video is a preliminary edit of 16 mm footage I took April 14-15, 1970 of a Raji shaman initiation in a village (Sano Sheri) on the Babai River in Bardia, West Nepal. I used an old (1937) 16 mm Bell & Howell 70-D camera without sound and then made a video of it off a screen. The initiation is normally held at night. However, because I had no lighting equipment, at my request--and by my supplying the alcoholic beverage (raksi)--the Raji agreed to have it take place during the day.

Raji Shaman Initiation 1970 3-25-20.mp4

Description of Footage

A general scene of the participants in the initiation and of bystanders is followed by a scene in which men "dance" about while in a state of possession. A shaman throws rice, while a boy plays the drum. Two possessed shamans shake an initiate, and some initiates are shown sitting with their hands held before their faces. Several similar scenes follow showing possession and people sitting during one of the interludes in the possession sessions. Initiates "dance" through a fire. Shamans hold initiates while fine cuts are made in their bodies. After offering liquor to their deities, the initiates "dance" possessed around a tree. Taking rice from a shaman, they throw it at the tree. The goat is sacrificed, and the mixed blood and rice is applied to the foreheads of people who were present.

Background

The Raji are a Tibeto-Burman speaking tribe that had taken up agriculture in the forested lowlands (Terai) & foothills of the Himalayas. I carried out ethnographic research among groups of the Purbia Raji in 1969-70 and 1975-76 with occasional visits until 2018. In 1969 the group I studied lived in the Babai River Valley. In the 1980s they were moved out by the government in order to make room for Bardia National Park, which remains one of the most pristine wildlife areas in Nepal.

At the time the of filming the shaman (gurau) was the most important religious functionary in Raji society. He played a key role in most major village rituals, besides being a curer of illnesses. In the Babai Valley many of the adult married men had participated in shaman initiations, although only a few continued on to become practicing shamans. Many participated in the initiations primarily in order to gain the ability to communicate directly with a tutelary deity, which would help to protect them and their families.

Related Photo Albums

Albums with images of Raji religious ceremonies and other cultural topics can be found in the Photo Archive section of this site. Albums about ethnic groups related to the Purbia Raji can be found with the following titles: "Raji (Bandali)," "Raji (Naukule)," "Raute," and "Ban Raut."

Raji Shaman Session 1969

Raji Shaman Session 1970 3-25-20.mp4

Pottery Making - Kathmandu Valley 1968

This video is an edited version of footage I took in the town of Thimi during the months of April and August 1968. I used an old (1937) 16mm camera without sound, and the footage was digitized by videoing it off a screen and editing it on my PC.

Pottery Making 1968 T-M-WM 7-1-20.mp4

Description

The film shows a potter collecting clay, mixing it, forming pots on the wheel, working on the formed pot, adding a decorative stamp and coloring to pots, firing them, and then storing the pottery.

Related Publication

Pottery Making in Nepal

Background

Pottery making in the Katmandu Valley is traditionally the occupation of the Newars, a Tibeto-Burman speaking people, who in the 1960s made up more than half the total population in the Valley. The Newar potter caste (Kumhale) is found especially concentrated in the town of Thimi, located about five miles east of Katmandu.


Related Photo Album

Wood Working - Hooka 1968

Woodworking - Hookah T-M-WM 8-5-20.mp4

EUROPEAN VIDEOS

NOTE:

The films listed below are documentaries that I made in Europe beginning in 1965 using an old 16 mm film camera, which did not have sound recording. Due to the cost of 16 mm film, scenes were often brief. I roughly edited the footage several years ago, and then simply made digital video copies of them off of a screen. In some cases I have added a link to an introductory text that explains more about a video’s contents. Although not professionally made, they may be of interest for historical purposes. However, they are not to be publically shown without prior agreement.

Taranto, Italy - Underwater Archaeology 1967

A - Taranto 1967 T-WM-M 8-6-20.mp4

Sponge Divers of Kalymnos, Grece 1965

This video is a preliminary edit of 16 mm footage I took on the island of Kalymnos, Greece in 1965. I used an old (1937) Bell & Howell 70-D camera without sound, and the footage was digitized by videoing it off a screen and editing it on my PC. The video is currently (March 2020) eight minutes long.

A - Kalymnos 1965 T-M-WM 8-6-20.mp4

Background

Kalymnos is a Greek island near the coast of Turkey, which is famous as the home of sponge divers. They found the remains of ancient shipwrecks while diving in the Mediterranean and their discoveries led to the founding of underwater archaeology in 1959. I went to Kalymnos in 1965 and met Russell Bernard who was doing cultural anthropological fieldwork on the island. I was able to spend a month learning about the sponge divers thanks to Russ’ extensive experience living there. Fortunately, I had arrived in time to witness some of the activities that occurred before the sponge divers left for several months gathering sponges off the coast of North Africa.

Related Photo Albums

For an album about mainland Greece and its sacred mountains (Olympus, Parnassus, Lykaeon, Athos, etc.) see: